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Hardin original article


1.      Population problem has no technical solution

someone has to die or smth. Look at empirical evidence. But his time pop growing


3.      Finite world cannot support finite population only - growth=0

Can't max no. of humas and individual wellbeing (Bethan goal), because

Dif. equation prblem. But variables not independent! humans can affect their growth

Work calories must be elliminated. However callories will not finnish before space (nuclear energy).

4.      Inequality results, as we cannot define goods (sunshine) in money

5.      Growth in western countries has stopped

surprising how well natural birth management works

GNP per head grows despite stagnating pop

6.      Tragedy - when one cannot do anything about it (Whitehead)

7.      Utility in common usage -

positive big - goes only to U

negative small, falls to everyone

However - people tend to think about future as well - future negative remains, positive one off

If it is cheaper than 1/n to punish the cheater, instead of allowing him to use commons to much people will punish him.

Join these - in long term - utility of others increases, so when they do not discount fuure they will punish cheater anyway

However - collective punishing system. Initially hard to set up.

8.      How bad are you doing depends on society

Our society does not take that into account

9.      If no welfare state then:

No pop problem - poor die?

technical solution(China) - exclude too high breeders from welfare society

10.    If society and governemtn works and your assumtion says it should not (corruption) then your assumption is wrong - too simplistic

11.    Too hard to determine enough parameters to set up a mathematical model for society. we should make it better by other ways - looking at microexamples how it should work

12.    People not rational - rational does not mean optimal. Rational in long term or short term?

13.    Why bother with family planning in western countries if we are not remotely close to optimal population. Maybe we are - unemployment

14.    UN - human rights - as man children as you like

15.    concience is self elliminating - natural selection pathogeneic effect. again assumes model of behaviour

people should lie about concios to be optimal. Lying is rubbish term, one has to prove that he is speaking the truth in decent ecological system - credibility example

16.    There will be always rules on commons/open access - we should make them better(5)

17.    Mutual coersion - persuation by the society

18.    conflict between unequality and common. black-white

19.    enclosure is infrigement of liberty

but only of the people who cheated before

20.    His ideas apply to open-access only. as population increase we must use more commons, not automatically increase people using the existing ones.

21.    Hierarcy important (not too many, cant operate and control)

Stocks amazon lake 1.5

1.      Ecological destruction not caused by pop increase, there was a decrease

2.      Changes in the logic of production did

1.      for exchange

2.      seek to accumulate surplus

3.      state intervention was not there

4.      imperfect information

5.      outsiders started to use (not commons anymore)

3.      Incredibly complexs methods for tribes

4.      Theories

no management w/o political rule (Hobbes). State of war

society selfregulating (Locke)

each person only produces for themselves Managed sociocultural practices (Rappaport, Harris). religion, birth control, kinship

Natural economy evolutes towards a functioning one? Doubt that. there is no evolution after a human because humans can cause themselves to evolute!

5.      Resource management

1.      goals directed means-end (rational)

2.      optimal foraging (not predictable)

evolution causes

use same as previous people a bit. whats best at current

3.      customary

6.      Empirical evid

foraging - people did what most efficient

migration out

energy max, time min (not like for money)

rational - did not allow commercial fishing, barbasco had already destroyed the lake once

custom - waste, dying lakes

7.      Explanations

cultural evolution

enough experience

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