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Horrell, education, entrepreneur

Britain did not have a need for education on ind rev.

In Victorian economy new developments were needed in chemistry, Oeioke noticed the deficiency.

Germany wanted to catch up with England, so lots of state expenditure to education and developing links between industry and education.

People noticed that. 1852  exhibition England excelled. in 1872UK had only 10 of 90 marks of excellence. Individual industries failed a lot because little education. Britain had an advantage in Chemicals, but then lacked behind. UK had may innovations. But Britain did not start using them.

Steel lead is lost in Victorian era. People did not know what was a good invention. Not a lack of inventiveness but a lack of innovations b entrepreneurs, because they were not scientifically educated.

Number of commissions were set up to look at education. Primary education was poor. Grammar schools concentrated on classics. Nobody studied industry in University. No compulsory education.

They changed:

1. Primary education compulsory 1970. Although primary ed. not compulsory 50% of children did get some. 1890 83% literacy.

2. Secondary schools - public and grammar schools. Public schools developed. Grammar concentrated only on classics. Public schools did not want to teach technically and created attitude against science. 1874 endowed schools act introduced science and made schools build laboratories. But 1892 Act 25% of Grammar schools not paid and specified curriculum without science.

3. Tertiary education. Not much science in Cambridge and Ox. In 1875 some professorships in science  in Cambridge. In 1872 only 12 people doing science. From 1870s onwards civil universities. No endowment, relied on industries for funding, biased towards local industries. number going through them increased. 1910 1200 students graduated.


Germany compulsory education since 1800. In 1860 continuation schools besides jobs. Germany also had grammar schools. But had also real schools teaching science. 1859 nine year science schools. University better. 1830s the universities started to improve - technical universities. Much more government finance.

But all the skills people need acquired at work.

DEVELOPMENTS central schools for brighter. city put money into and established central exams. technical schools and colleges. teacher grants.

So education not that bad, not everybody needs, education is there only not state co-ordinated so a bit chaotic.


We are looking only formal, not apprentices - decline by 1900. That is why school leaving age was rose. Employers are not investing to education because they thought others will benefit.


There was resistance in British industry for education.

Firms are not aware of R&D. That might be reasonable. It is cheaper to watch the other industry.

Why doesn't education feed through - reception is problematic. No link between the success of industry and availability of education. Inherited industries -- managers no skills. Trade unions restricted apprentices. they were resistant to other education. Public schools had a was. not so muxh evidence. Service income more stable


Contemporaries thought that UK was failing as imports were high. Example with steel - using wrong types of technology, blamed on entrepreneurship.

Lots of accusitions of ent. being shor term.

Some thought f

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