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Europe and Social Chapter

Social dumping

1.      political objective of abundance of war

2.      econmic integration the vechile

3.      avoidance of social dumping

Treaty of rome(57)

Institutional sturcture of EC

1.      Council of ministers. Veto or QMV

2.      Commission - initiates

European Parliaments - advisory

European court of justice - binding

Social and Economic commities -lobbying

Regulatory instruments

1.      Regulations - in detail

2.      Directives - in result(must achiveve but dont tell how)

3.      Decision specific

4.      Reccomedations non binding

5.      Opinions - nonbinbing

European trade Union - considertation

Union of industrial and Employer Confederation

Evolution of Social policy

1957 Treaty of Rome

1.      Internal market

2.      Free movement of workers

1973 Paris ocuncil

social union equal to economic union

1974 Social Actions Programm

1.      full and better employmeny

2.      imorove working consitions

3.      gratere working participation

Failed initiatives

1.      5th Direction (employee directions

2.      Vreding dir (Information rights)

Succesful initiatives

1.      Multinational directives (redunant, mergers, insolvency)

2.      Healthy and Safety Directives (UK thought they have relaxest, but now embarasing)

Gender Equality

Equal Pay dir (1975) Had a very slow effect at first

Equal treatment dir(1976)

Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome had it in, so it is generally applicable to all states.

Part time workers effect.

Mostly women were part time, so it was thought they should have the same rights. Now 2 years+ have binding contracts. Pensions were argued should be same for part-time. Consequence was that women retirement rose to 65.


After 1979 most were stoped because of MThatcher. Britai didn't want any right to part-time workers to increase flexibility


L'Espace sociale of delors.

1986 ETUC/UNICE dialogue. But UK introduced Action Plan contercact (encourages training and free movement. Opposed freedom of association (TU), young people and part time supporting)

1987 Single Euripean Act was passed. Introduced quality majority voting.

1987 Plinth of Social Rights.

1989 Social Chapter - exemplary


Mastrichts Treaty (91)

Social Protocol

Changing Emphasis

1.      harmonic ends not means

2.      Examples, not legal stands

3.      even up, not unifor

4.      subsidiary not centralisation


1.      Article Council Directive (1994). Most european firms treat english as europeans

2.      Working time Directive (1993). It is insignificant in most EU countries (less than 48h). So Time is not new. Voluntarily one can work more. Managers and transport workers are not covered. 1 not interupted rest day per week+holidays.

3.      Posted workers directive (96). Not affect UK. Workers sent abroad must obey the country from which they are sent. 17 year workers conditions.

Net effects

Socail protocol is fairly weak (don't bring in a minimum wage). Most things are controversioal (working week, work councils).

Separate broader effects arising from

1.      close integration - not in lines of pay, because non-pay remunerations differ and trade unions are ineffective in different countries. They are evening out conditions, hours of work.

2.      EU - indirect effects are more improtant

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