State of the economy (economic growth - wage rises easier)
1/2(13m) in 1970, 1/3(9.5m) now belong to unions
No. of strikes and belonging to unions has fallen significantly after 1980(coz supply side)
Majority of strikes is for higher wages
Sympathetic strikes (support other unions, illegal) and political strikes are rare in UK
1975Employment protection act favoured unions, union density up to 55%, now45%
Regional policy-Cumulative decline - history of trade unions discourages new firms to enter
UK hasn't done as well as other West-European countries coz unions
1. Employment act 1980 outlawed secondary picketing
2. Trade union act1984 PRESTRIKE BALLOT(employer makes a better offer after ballot), 5year representative ballot.
3. Restrictive labour practices - closed shop, now unlawful.
5. New workplaces have no unions and old close down.
6. Main reasons were economic-restructuring of economy and unemployment.
7. pay inequality rose(1/5 income10%in79, 6%in92, richest35%79, 43%92, female75%88, 80%94, av.wages2.7x80in94)
8. more flexible markets(inequality and many lowpaid parttime jobs)
a. numerical-atypical cheap labour, effective plant operation(24h), stress, high turnover, unmotivated, lot in UK
b. functional-adopts to demand, range of products with same workforce, investment in human capital, high wage, core labour, good when demand stable
9. wage councils abolished
10. public sector pay frozen
1. Union supports management efficiency
2. Encourages cooperation
3. Improving communications by collective voice
1. No techics
2. No organisational change
3. Wrong working rules
5. Demarcation(ships)-maintain demand for labour
1. Recession and unemployment fear factor
2. rising real wages and low inflation
3. antiunion legislation(supply-side)
4. younger workforce
5. less co.s recognise unions(success rate)(manufacture declines, firms that recognised haven't closed, new firms dont recognise-aggressive management)
6. more private sector
7. competition, IT
8. contracting-out of manual services in public co.
9. high among teacher
10. many co. birth
11. part-time work
1. craft-similar job(NGA)
2. industrial union-open to all in industry(NUM)
3. general-all unskilled(TGWU)
4. white collar(NUteachers)