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Not due Microorganisms spoil slower,not found inside apple

Soak apple into phenol(kills microorganisms)and compare-no change in browning

Temperature destroys enzymes-heated apple doesn't brown

needs air-quinone is formed from oxygen

ascorbic acid prevents browning because reduces(antioxidant)

Enzyme active pH 6-8.Citric acid occurs naturally&doesn't affect taste.SO2 is an enzy.inhibitor

Browning control:

1Reduce concentration of substrate by selecting apples or genetically

2Excluding oxygen+adding antioxidant

3Inactivating enzyme by heating,adjusting pH,adding inhibitors,altering conc.of reaction soln

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