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1Carbohydrates should be 55-60% of energy

Plants by photosynthesis(monosaccharide-glucose,disac malt-lact-sucrose)

Starch-main food reserve,2 types of glucose polymer-amylose linear+amylopectin-branched

Cellulose-10k glucose units

2Fats 30%-lipids,glycerol esters


It dissolves vitamins,protects thermally&physically

Hydrogenating with Ni cat.180C,H2 bubbled through,makes harder&stable

3Proteins 10-15%

aPrimary structure-amino acids linked by peptide bonds,8 essential

bSecondary structure-a-helix with H-bonds

cTertiary structure

iFibrous-insoluble in H2O,resistant to pH+t


Binelastic-cross links,e.g.fibrin(collagen)

iiGlobular-soluble,affected by pH,e.g.egg albumin,casein,gelatine

Functions-structure(collagen in bones),food store(albumen),oxygen carrier,enzymes,buffers

Enzymes-destroyed on heating,inactive in extreme pH

4Mineral elements

aPart of body structure(CA in bones)

bFluids in the tissues,buffers

cComponent of enzymes


aTransport nutrients

bTake part in chemical changes in the tissues&during digestion

cMaintains tissue rigidity


RetinolA,nicotinic acidB,thiaminB1,riboflavinB2,Ascorbic acidC,cholecalciferolD,TocopherolE,K

AEnergy supply-CFP

BGrowth&repair of body-PMW

CControl of body processes-PMWV

Body needs oxygen&energy,of basal metabolism 6700kJ/day

Glucose content-0.5% glucose soln to burette

225cm3 Benedichts to wide-mouth conical flask,Add anhydrous Na2CO3+ boiling stones

4Heat until NaCO3 dissolves

5Titrate first rapidly then drop per 20sec until blue colour disappears,solution must boil,1%methylene blue as indicator

6Repeat with liquid you want

Glucose is a reducing sugar&Benedichts reagent tests for organic reducing agents

To measure sucrose we must boil with HCl for a while to convert sucrose to glucose

Vitamin C in cabbage

Istandardise indicator DCPIP

0.04% DCPIP(0.4gdm-3) to burette, 25cm3 C to wide-mouth conical flask,blue colour of the dye turns colourless because of C,when finished turns red(10sec)because acidic cond

3Subtract Blank titration 25cm H3PO4

IIuncooked cabbage

1Liquidize 50g with 5% H3PO4(inactivates enzyme&dissolves C better&does not destroy it


IIIcooked cabbage

1Simmer 50g in little water to avoid loss,but more C is destroyed,because enzyme is not destroyed fast enough)

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